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You can have the best structured and incentive compatible policies and yet not have much impact on the ground in addressing the underlying problem. And this state of affairs can persist for years, even decades. Crop insurance and foodgrain procurement are two examples of where acute last mile gaps come in the way of realising desired outcomes. In both cases, it is easy enough to announce the best possible design of a crop insurance or crop procurement policy. But those announcements mean nothing when the rubber hits the road.
In case of the former, the constraint is the insurance payout, while with the latter it is the actual physical procurement itself. Indian Express carries a story on the troubles faced by farmers selling off their produce at the public procurement centres at a mandi in Vidisha district of Madhya Pradesh. Roop had received an SMS eight days ago from the cooperative society with which they are registered, asking him to come to the mandi on Wednesday, but the father and son chose to come a day earlier Their token number, a chit issued the day they reached, is 234 — there are 233 farmers ahead of them in the queue. Department level for atleast five years, maybe as mission-mode projects, with the mandate being to fix the plumbing challenges and demonstrate success with at least a few models. Agriculture in the District, in at least some of the districts.
Many things which can be done relatively easily at the district level may not be possible for the States or Government of India to prescribe. It demands more of a gradual and bottom-up diffusion approach than a top-down, one-speed, universal coverage approach. This applies as such to the IBC too. NCLT will be compromised, promoters will create hurdles even after resolution, and so on. We need some concerted systemic effort to be at it for a reasonably long enough period of time to allow some hysteresis to set in. And monitor them closely for five years at different levels. A recent article in the Economist pointed to success of Ethiopia’s social safety net programs.