For the Nutcracker Ballet piece, see Trepak. Russian culture has a long history. Russian culture grew from that of the East Slavs, with their pagan beliefs and specific way of life forex clubs in toronto the wooded areas of far Eastern Europe.
Nowadays, Russian cultural heritage is ranked seventh in the Nation Brands Index, based on interviews of some 20,000 people mainly from Western countries and the Far East. The Ostromir Gospels of 1056 is the second oldest East Slavic book known, one of many medieval illuminated manuscripts preserved in the Russian National Library. Russia’s 160 ethnic groups speak some 100 languages. According to the 2002 census, 142. 6 million people speak Russian, followed by Tatar with 5.
Over a quarter of the world’s scientific literature is published in Russian. New Russian folklore takes its roots in the pagan beliefs of ancient Slavs which is nowadays still represented in the Russian fairy tales. Folklorists today consider the 1920s the Soviet Union’s golden age of folklore. The struggling new government, which had to focus its efforts on establishing a new administrative system and building up the nation’s backwards economy, could not be bothered with attempting to control literature, so studies of folklore thrived. Once Joseph Stalin came to power and put his first five-year plan into motion in 1928, the Soviet government began to criticize and censor folklore studies. Stalin and the Soviet regime repressed folklore, believing that it supported the old tsarist system and a capitalist economy. In order to continue researching and analyzing folklore, intellectuals needed to justify its worth to the Communist regime.
Otherwise, collections of folklore, along with all other literature deemed useless for the purposes of Stalin’s Five Year Plan, would be an unacceptable realm of study. Yuri Sokolov, the head of the folklore section of the Union of Soviet Writers also promoted the study of folklore by arguing that folklore had originally been the oral tradition of the working people, and consequently could be used to motivate and inspire collective projects amongst the present-day proletariat. Apart from circulating government-approved fairy tales and byliny that already existed, during Stalin’s rule authors parroting appropriate Soviet ideologies wrote Communist folktales and introduced them to the population. These contemporary folktales combined the structures and motifs of the old byliny with contemporary life in the Soviet Union. Called noviny, these new tales were considered the renaissance of the Russian epic. These new Soviet fairy tales and folk songs primarily focused on the contrasts between a miserable life in old tsarist Russia and an improved one under Stalin’s leadership.