Address correspondence and reprint requests to Gabriela K Popescu, Biochemistry, University at Buffalo, 140 Farber Hall 3435 Main Street, Buffalo, NY 4214, USA. Src kinase and nitric oxide signaling pathways” in J Neurochem, volume 130 on page 642. See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. NMDA receptors are glutamate and glycine-gated receptors with high calcium permeability.
Many of the effects of tat on synaptic density, dendritic morphology, and neuronal death appear to be mediated by NMDARs, however, the complex interactions between tat and NMDA receptors are only beginning to be unraveled. In this issue of Journal of Neurochemistry, Krogh et al. A large contingent of HIV-infected patients present neurological symptoms which range in severity from mild impairment to incapacitating loss of cognitive functions and motor deficits. Tat neurotoxicity requires NMDAR activity but also tat internalization by LRP.
Two additional observations by Krogh and colleagues are notable. Second, they argue that the adaptation pathways are tat specific. The impact of these new results rests with the temporal and molecular detail they provide but also with the new questions that come to the fore. It will be important to understand what role does the adaptation described in this work play in neuronal physiology?